Tidsskrift for Islamforskning 2021-04-26T19:27:45+02:00 Jesper Petersen Open Journal Systems <div id="focusAndScope"> <p>Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) er et netbaseret tidsskrift, hvis formål er at fremme videndeling blandt forskere og samtidig viderebringe forskningsresultater til den bredere offentlighed. Tidsskriftets fokus er skandinavisk islamforskning; det vil sige både forskning i islam og muslimer i Skandinavien af såvel skandinaviske som internationale islamforskere, og forskning i islam og muslimer - bredt set og i hele verdenen - men forankret i skandinaviske forskningsprojekter. Tidsskriftet udgives af Forum for Islamforskning (FIFO), udkommer 1-2 gange årligt og er fagfællebedømt. Første udgave af Tidsskrift for Islamforskning udkom 17. oktober 2006.</p> </div> Danish Muslims during COVID- 19 2021-04-23T19:46:38+02:00 Lene Kühle <p>How have Danish Muslims communicated on social media about COVID-19, and how have religious communities been included in the handling of the pandemic? Religion has become part of the public debate in new ways, because religious gathering places have been closed, owing to this crisis. Muslim leaders, and ministries and municipalities, have established religion-sensitive guidelines for how people should behave during the crisis caused by the pandemic. This article investigates the reactions of official mosque social media profiles to the pandemic, based on their public communication on social media platforms. This material is analyzed in relation to Habermas’s concept of the postsecular society. I conclude that this crisis has contributed to negotiations concerning the position of minority religions, particularly with regard to Islam in Danish society.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) “Perhaps we see it in negative terms, but, ultimately, it is positive” 2021-04-26T18:56:02+02:00 Simon Sorgenfrei <p>This article investigates how prominent preachers within Sweden’s most active puritan Salafi group,, relate to COVID-19. The article analyzes material published online between March 1, 2020, and July 31, 2020, which is herein divided into three categories: rhetorical responses, social responses, and theological responses. Salafism is often presented in academic literature and by the media as a current that is at odds with the majority society. The material analyzed shows that the Salafi group upon which this article focuses can rhetorically criticize certain expressions in the majority culture while simultaneously emphasizing the importance of heeding the recommendations of the Swedish authorities. Islam is presented both as an alternative and as a complement. The material also shows how the strong emphasis on proselytizing that is typical for is also apparent in relation to COVID-19.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) Home prayer, unattended funerals and social responsibility: Muslims in Italy and the coronavirus outbreak (March-May 2020) 2021-04-23T20:14:01+02:00 Alessandro Gori <p>Sadly, in 2020 Italy was one of the countries hardest hit by coronavirus (by 26 February 2021 2020: 2,868,435 infected; 96,974 dead). All religious communities in Italy had to respond quickly and clearly to a common and invisible threat, while providing guidance and support to their local congregations and complying with government provisions in order to curb the spread of the virus. From 9 March to 2 May 2020, Italy’s approximately 2.9 million Muslims, like all other residents, had to abide by the country’s strict stay-at-home orders, refraining from going out except for emergencies and to buy food. In the present article, I will make use of selected texts published on the official websites of the Unione delle Comunità e Organizzazioni Islamiche in Italia (UCOII – Union of Islamic congregations and organizations in Italy – اتحاد الهيئات والجاليات الإسلامية في إيطاليا ) and of the As sociazione Islamica Italiana degli Imam e delle Guide Religiose (Italian Islamic Association of Imams and Religious Guides; الجمعية الإسلامية الإيطالية للأئمة والمرشدين ) to deter mine and discuss: 1) which practices of the Italian Islamic community were most affected by the epidemic, and 2) how Italian Muslims carried out various symbolic and social initiatives to demonstrate their active participation in the common fight against the spread of the virus.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) Islamic Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in India and Pakistan 2021-04-26T18:57:51+02:00 Martin Riexinger <p>India’s and Pakistan’s governments, like most of the world’s governments, responded to the spread of the COVID-19 virus with lockdowns, which in principle also affected religious institutions and rituals. However, Sunni mosques in Pakistan were not closed, as the government has no authority over autonomous religious organizations. In contrast, the Islamic organizations and institutions in India complied with government orders, and tried to present themselves as a “responsible minority” during a period when relations with the Hindu nationalist government were strained, and because a convention of the Tablīghī Jamāʿat had contributed considerably to the spread of the disease in the country and abroad. In Pakistan, the role of the “responsible minority” was played by the Shiites, who closed their mosques. On the whole, Muslim religious leaders and organizations showed little interest in taking a stand on the pandemic. Those few who make extensive use of the internet tend to address the better-educated social strata, and tend view pandemic-related restrictions more favorably.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) Med bønnens kraft: Et islamisk og kristent arabisk perspektiv på covid-19 2021-04-26T18:59:20+02:00 Ehab Galal <p>I de arabiske lande har covid-19, ligesom andre steder i verden, ført til restriktioner af den religiøse praksis, blandt andet i form af periodevis lukkede kirker og moskeer. Ligeledes har religiøse autoriteter med henvisning til religionen deltaget i debatten om covid-19’s betydning og håndtering. På denne baggrund analyseres i denne artikel, hvordan religiøse argumenter bekræfter henholdsvis udfordrer de arabiske staters håndtering af covid-19 i foråret 2020, og hvordan disse afspejler samspillet mellem stat og religion. Mens staterne gør brug af sundhedsvidenskabelig og sekulær argumentation, identificeres tre positioner blandt religiøse autoriteter: de, der støtter op om og med henvisning til religionen legitimerer staternes håndtering af covid-19; de, der finder alle svar i religionen og undgår at tale om politik; og de, der afviser og mistænkeliggør statens linje. Således afspejler debatten om håndtering af covid-19 i de arabiske lande gængse religiøse positioner i spørgsmålet om religionens rolle i samfundet.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) “Deafening silence of theologians” vs. creative local parishes during the Corona pandemic? 2021-04-26T19:00:56+02:00 Katharina Nötzold <p>21 million Germans belong to the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). This report will highlight initial official theological reactions of the EKD to the Corona pandemic. The Protestant Church faced widespread criticism from prominent figures for its handling of the pandemic. This papers gives an overview of the major objections and it looks at how the EKD and its representatives reacted to it. Yet this report also looks at the numerous resourceful initiatives of churches to react in creative formats to social distancing measures issued by the German Länder and/or the federal government. In sum, Covid-19 has had a huge impact on each congregation – as a community and for individual believers but also on the self-perception of the Protestant Church and its social relevance in an increasingly secularised society.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) The Russian Orthodox Church and the Pandemic: Problems, Challenges, Responses 2021-04-26T19:02:41+02:00 Mikhail Suslov <p>The article discusses the reaction of the Russian Orthodox Church on the pandemic of COVID-19. This research identifies and analyzes major ideological cleavages on this issue, such as the possibility of transmitting viruses via the Eucharist, the religious meaning of the pandemic, and possibilities of digitalizing the rituals. The article pays special attention to the camp of Orthodox fundamentalists, whose reaction to the corona-crisis partially follows the international model of “COVID-dissidence” and partially taps into the domestic Russian sources, such as the mainstream ideology of geopolitical Messianism, entertained by the authoritarian regime. The author argues that the Orthodox take on COVID-19 magnifies major problems of the post-Soviet Church, including the excessive reliance on the state, “magical-fundamentalist” inclinations of the religious believers, and fears of digitalization.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) GOD IS TELLING US SOMETHING 2021-04-26T19:04:05+02:00 Joshua Sabih <p>The conflicting and different reactions to Covid-19 pandemic, ranging from a willingness to cooperate with health authorities to a violent rejection of all decisions and measures suggested or taken by local and international authorities are but expressions of framing meanings of and finding answers to why Covid-19 broke out on a such global scale beyond biological boundaries. This is to show why epidemics such as Covid-19 deserve to be investigated within their broader cultural, political, scientific, and geographic contexts. Religion or the religious rationale once again has made itself a site of interest in the public space; both as one of the many competing explanatory frameworks and as a scapegoat for contributing to the breakdown of the social order and for promoting unscientific, irrational and superstitious understandings and interpretations of Covid-19. As a matter of fact, certain religious communities across all the Abrahamic religions do present theological and eschatological interpretations of the pandemic. As we shall see, Messianic Jewish groups actually present a hermeneutical framework that consists of a theological-eschatological framework of the Covid-19 pandemic and a socio-political pantheism plan of action the aim of which is to maintain the believer immune to the attacks of secularism and its ills. On the latter point, I find Rabbi Amnon Yitzhak’s explanatory framework of the Covid-19 pandemic very informative as both to how the religious rationale is still at work in post-secular societies, and why Jewish ultra-orthodoxy’s theological-eschatological explanation and social pantheist response are worth investigating. In this article, Rabbi Amnon Yitzhak’s “perception, interpretation and response” to the Covid-19 pandemic and its global impact on both the biological and the social aspects shall be the primary subject of our analysis.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) Da krisen ramte: Genforhandlingerne af amerikansk-jødiske samfundsværdier 2021-04-26T19:27:45+02:00 Maja Gildin Zuckerman <p>Jeg viser i denne artikel, hvordan corona-pandemien sammen med sommerens raceuroligheder har rystet de amerikansk-jødiske samfund i deres fundament. Nødvendighed og krise, usikkerhed, nye tankeformer og idealisme er tilsammen i gang med at omforme, hvordan jødisk liv bliver levet i dagens Amerika. Empirisk beskriver jeg fire forskellige faser, som det amerikansk-jødiske samfund foreløbig har undergået gennem krisen. Teoretisk argumenterer jeg for, at disse faser viser, hvordan krisen har igangsat en omkalfatring af amerikansk-jødiske kerneværdier, hvor jødisk solidaritet og enhed igen fremstår som centrale værdier, der samler det jødiske samfund og jøder som gruppe. Samtidig udfordrer denne nyfundne solidaritet jøderne i deres forhold til landets øvrige problemstillinger og befolkningsgrupper.</p> 2021-04-26T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tidsskrift for Islamforskning (Scandinavian Journal of Islamic Studies) Religion og sekularisme under covid-19 2021-04-26T18:50:01+02:00 Ehab Galal <p>I begyndelsen af 2020 var Kina epicenteret for covid-19, hvorfra virussen hurtigt spredte sig til resten af verden. Pandemien kom som et chok for de uforberedte stater og for deres befolkninger, der hurtigt måtte se deres hverdag underlagt restriktioner i vari erende grad. På den ene side blev sundhedsmyndighedernes udstukne retningslinjer mødt med velvilje og samarbejde, og på den anden side opstod der hurtigt uenigheder både internt imellem og på tværs af borgere, interessegrupper og politiske partier. Man så også, jo længere krisen trak ud, i stigende grad voldelige sammenstød mellem grupper af borgere og myndigheder. I første fase var nogle staters reaktion at afvise virussens tilstedeværelse i deres lande. Andre var langsomme med at få igangsat initiativer, der kunne reducere smitten, mens enkelte lande til gengæld hurtigt indførte forholdsregler i forsøget på at forhindre et større udbrud.</p> 2021-04-23T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021